### Why are the results of Short-Circuit calculation depending on Max. Voltage Tolerance?

The new VDE/IEC standard distinguishes between low-voltage networks with 6% and 10% of voltage tolerance.For networks with a tolerance of 6% cmin and cmax are set according with IEC 60909-0:2001 Page…

### Why are the results for Short Circuit calculation different depending on "Power Station Unit Detection" option?

According to VDE/IEC in standard system fed directly from generators without transformer units, the impedance defined in following equation has to be used. Z_G = K_G x (R_G + j X_d") With the…

### Is it possible to calculate faults between lines at different voltage levels?

PowerFactory allows for calculation of faults between lines at different voltages, that means in general faults between different circuit phases through a definition of a "Intercircuit Fault". In…

### Do you have an example of a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)?

An UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller) is a FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) device, which consists of two VSCs (Voltage-Sourced Converters). The VSCs are interconnected with each other on…
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### How can the calculation of fault current along a line be automated?

With the short-circuit sweep command it is possible to calculate Short-Circuits along a path.Therefore it is necessary to define a Path (SetPath) and a Short-Circuit Sweep command (ComShcsweep) along…

### How to set up a model of HV grid as an external grid for Short-Circuit calculation?

When entering the data for an external network you should firstly be aware of the meaning of Minimum and Maximum current calculations.The Data for the external grid comprise: The fault level may be…
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### How can I adjust the tap positions of a 3-winding transformer during the simulation?

To change the tap position of a 3-winding transformer during a simulation define a parameter event (EvtParam) using the appropriate variable: e:nntap_int_h which corresponds to the tap-position HV…
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### How can I model a transformer with phase-shift tap changing to control active power flow?

This can be defined in the load-flow page of the transformer. The attached example shows how to use a phase-shift transformer to control the active power shared between several transformers…
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### Where can I find a TCR (Thyristor Controlled Reactor) for Load-flow and EMT simulations?

The best option is to model the TCR using a SVC model and setting the number of capacitors to zero, as shown in attached example. In order to analyze the harmonic distortion of the current…
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### How can I model two transformers controlling the same busbar voltage?

This can be modelled using an external tap controller or a master-slave mode. First of all, both transformers shall have a type which includes settings for the tap changer. In addition, the…
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