### How to calculate a single phase to ground Short Circuit throught a protective earth wire?

There are two ways to calculate this kind of fault: Use a 4-wire model in which the N-conductor is explicitly modelled and the PE-wire is reduced and modelled as earth. Then when calculate a phase to…

### How is the verification of the thermal equivalent Short-Circuit current done in PowerFactory?

The calculation results for the admissible thermal equivalent short-circuit current are the following values:- Ithr: rated thermal Short-Circuit current with respect to 1 second (entered in the type…

### Why are the results of Short-Citcuit calculation depending on Max. Voltage Tolerance?

The new VDE/IEC standard distinguishes between low-voltage networks with 6% and 10% of voltage tolerance.For networks with a tolerance of 6% cmin and cmax are set according with IEC 60909-0:2001 Page…

### Why are the results for Short Circuit calculation different depending on "Power Station Unit Detection" option?

According to VDE/IEC in standard system fed directly from generators without transformer units, the impedance defined in following equation has to be used. Z_G = K_G x (R_G + j X_d") With the…

### Is it possible to calculate faults between lines at different voltage level?

PowerFactory allows to calculate faults between lines at different voltages, that means in general faults between different circuit phases through a definition of a "Intercircuit Fault".To do it,…

### Do you have an example of a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)?

An UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller) is a FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) device, which consists of two VSCs (Voltage-Sourced Converters). The VSCs are interconnected with each other on…
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### How can the calculation of fault current along a line be automised?

With the short-circuit sweep command it is possible to calculate Short-Circuits along a path.Therefore it is necessary to define a Path (SetPath) and a Short-Circuit Sweep command (ComShcsweep) along…

### How to set up a model of HV grid as an external grid for Short-Circuit calculation?

When entering the data for an external network you should firstly be aware of the meaning of Minimum and Maximum current calculations.The Data for the external grid comprise: The fault level may be…
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### How can I adjust the tap positions of a 3-winding transformer during the simulation?

To change the tap position of a 3-winding transformer during a simulation define a parameter event (EvtParam) using the appropriate variable: e:nntap_int_h which corresponds to the tap-position HV…
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### How can I model a transformer with phase-shift tap changing to control active power flow?

This can be defined in the load-flow page of the transformer. The attached example shows how to use a phase-shift transformer to control the active power shared between several transformers…
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