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The transformer impedance is mainly influenced by the series leakage inductance and copper losses for harmonic studies based on Harmonic Load Flow Calculation and Network Impedance Frequency Sweep…
The injection of harmonic currents is frequently modeled by a current source.Various elements are available in PowerFactory as current sources, such as for example ElmLod, ElmGenstat and ElmIac. The…
The impedances of each phase of an overhead line differs from each other due different relative geometries of each ohase of the line. In order to mitigate / reduce unbalances in the system, overhead…
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Unlike traditional passive harmonic filters, active harmonic filters reduce the harmonic distortion in the system by cancellation of harmonic current injections. Active harmonic filters inject…
For harmonic analysis in the frequency domain, overhead lines and cables should be modeled based on a distributed parameter line model. Long overhead lines and cables should be modeled with…
For lightning transient studies, the line insulators are represented by voltage-dependent switches. There are different options to model the flashover during lightning transients, such as: Voltage…
The duration of an EMT simulation depends on the complexity of the network and integration step size that is configured in the initialisation command (*.ComInc). The integration step size depends on…
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In an EMT simulation, the result variables are recorded as instantaneous values. In order to record RMS signals such as voltages and current, the instantaneous have to be converted to RMS values. The…
Variable resistances can be modelled with the ElmSind. The grounding impedance represents a single phase model. Thus, the ElmSind is modelled as single phase element. The single Rin of the ElmSind is…
The attached project shows the energisation of the electrical grid and the active power load pick up with the voltage source converter (VSC) in EMT simulation. The DC capacitor is charged through a…