### How do I model the harmonic impedance of the network?

For being able to consider frequency dependent network impedances you may use the Voltage Source element (ElmVac) or the External Grid element (ElmXnet). On the Harmonics-page, frequency…
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### How do I model a load containing harmonic components based on its spectrum?

To assign a spectrum to the load element, firstly add a load type to the load element and then set the model to current source. The spectrum must be defined and assigned under the Harmonics page of…
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### How can I simulate a third harmonic in the positive sequence system?

An ideal symmetrical system has the following phase shifts for harmonics of the nth order:A: 0°B: -n*120°C: n*120°For the third harmonic, for example, the phase shifts amount to:A: 0°B: -360°C:…
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### How do I model a ripple control system in a substation?

In the attached project (RippleControl.pfd) two different methods of modelling ripple control systems are illustrated: The study case "Serial Infeed" shows the simplified way by just inserting a…
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### How can I simulate harmonic voltage distortion resulting from the feeding grid?

There are two ways to simulate the harmonic voltage distortion from the feeding grid: To model the infeed as a voltage source and entering the harmonics on the Harmonics page. To model the infeed as…
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### What are the options of the harmonic model of a PWM Converter?

The PWM converter model can either represent a harmonic current source or a harmonic voltage source. If you select the option "Constant I", the specified harmonic spectrum is injected as harmonic…
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### How can I model generation plants for own consumption to investigate compliance at the connection point according to VDEW?

Attached you can a PowerFactory project containing the investigation for VDEW compliance of an asynchronous generator (Example 1) and an inverter-fed synchronous machine (Example 2)…
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### How can I define harmonic background voltages in EMT simulations?

To define harmonic background voltages you have to link a voltage source with a DSL model or a fourier source. Refer to the example in the attached file.…
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### How can a harmonic voltage spectrum be converted to a harmonic current injection?

Assuming a harmonic voltage measurement is present and needs to be converted into current injections, the following steps need to be taken:1. Convert the measurement data from phase voltage…
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### I am trying to simulate a solar photovoltaic (PV) system in PowerFactory. Can I do that and if yes, how to perform the simulation?

It is possible to represent photovoltaic (PV) systems in PowerFactory for the purpose of power system analysis. It is important to decide from the very beginning on the type of analyses being carried…
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