Distributed Generation

Power system phenomena such as reverse power flows, voltage dips and swells, varying fault levels and equipment loading are some of the major challenges associated with distributed generation in electricity systems.

Of particular note are the challenges arising from the interaction between highly volatile generation from renewable sources, a network containing an increasing amount of innovative equipment and an increasing variability in consumption.
The comprehensive model library in PowerFactory provides users with the ability to use ready-made models for generators and converters, PV systems with integrated power calculation based on solar radiation, fuel cells, wind generators and battery storage, etc. as well as dynamic models (e.g. IEC, WECC DER_A).

To account for the interaction between consumption and generation in the network, models for single and three-phase loads, consumption energy profiles and electric vehicles can be used.

This provides the perfect basis for all the necessary analysis, from unbalanced network assessments and voltage drop/rise calculations, to quasi-dynamic simulations and voltage profile optimisation. Using the hosting-capacity calculation, the remaining capacity for renewable energies can be evaluated, while probabilistic analysis and reliability analysis can be performed in order to determine the risks of uncertainty.

Selected Features

Modelling

  • PV system model with integrated power calculation based on solar radiation (1 and 3-phase technology)
  • Dynamic models of wind turbine generators, PV systems, battery storage and other renewable generation units including FRT-capability
  • Various reactive power control schemes for single ­generators or wind farm / PV park master controllers
  • On-load-tap-changer capability with various control schemes including line-drop-compensation for trans­formers and voltage regulators
  • Symmetrical and unsymmetrical network representation

Calculation

  • Cable sizing of distribution networks, derating factor and cable ampacity calculation
  • Medium to long term quasi-dynamic simulation ­accounting for variable generation and battery storage applications
  • Optimisation of distribution transformer tap positions for bi-directional power flows in systems with a high level of distributed generation, for optimised voltage profile
  • Short-circuit calculation according to IEC 60909
  • Hosting-Capacity tool for the evaluation of spare ­generation or load capacity in predefined network areas
  • Probabilistic Analysis of load flow and optimal power flow
  • Reliability Analysis to identify the loss of generation and loads including optimal restoration schemes
  • Harmonic analysis, impedance sweep and flicker ­calculation for power quality assessment
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